Figure 1: This is an image of a typical asthma inhaler. With further development of MPPs, the drugs within these inhalers will be more effective than they are currently.

Nanoparticle Drug Delivery

Richard Liang 18’ Mucoadhesive particles (MAPs) are used as the primary method of pulmonary drug delivery since it was believed that they increase drug duration within the lungs. MAPs act by sticking to the mucus layers and are used to treat a variety of illnesses including asthma, cystic fibrosis and lung cancer. However, administered MAPs…

Figure 1: This is an example of a patient that shows symptoms of vitiligo. TRM cells were found to permanently reside in the affected areas and can be the key to long-term anti-tumor immunity.

Immunity to Future Cancers with Resident Memory T Cells

Richard Liang 18’ Skin cancer melanomas develop from melanocytes, or pigment-containing cells, and cause discoloration in various parts of the body. Patients with melanomas are also likely to develop an autoimmune disease known as vitiligo, in which the body’s immune system attacks melanocytes. This results in a patchy loss of pigmentation. Recently, in a study…

Figure 1: This is an illustration depicting the difference between healthy muscle cells (shown on the right) and muscle cells affected by muscle dystrophy (shown on the left). Due to the degeneration of the muscle cells, they will appear much smaller than usual.

Correcting Muscular Dystrophy Gene Mutations

Richard Liang 18’ Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe form of muscle degeneration that can become lethal if it affects heart muscle. It is known to be caused by mutations in the X-linked dystrophin-coding gene and thus, there has been ongoing research in correcting these mutations. Currently, there is no effective treatment for this…

Glucose Transportation

      By: Richard Liang 18’  Insulin is an important signaling factor in glucose uptake, acting in concert with glucose transporter GLUT4 to transport glucose into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In the presence of insulin, GLUT4 is translocated to the plasma membrane where an exocyst complex tethers the GLUT4 to the membrane, a…