Pectus Excavatum: Comparing Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Computed Tomography

Nomrota Majumder ‘21 Pectus Excavatum (PE) is a structural deformity of the anterior thoracic wall, located along the thoracic artery, and causes the breastbone to essentially sink into the chest. As the most common thoracic wall deformity in children, this condition is often congenital and worsens during the adolescent growth years. In addition to the phenotypic difference associated with this connective tissue disease, other symptoms … Continue reading Pectus Excavatum: Comparing Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Computed Tomography

Fibrinogen Plays a Neurodegenerative Role in Alzheimer’s Disease

By Natalie Lo ‘21 Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is characterized by the formation of β-amyloid plaques Aβ, microglial activation, and inflammation in the brain. Microglia are immune cells found in the central nervous system (CNS). In AD, the blood-brain barrier is disrupted, which leads to bleeding, vascular damage, and an increase in blood proteins. Currently, there is an unknown relationship between vascular dysfunction, proteins like fibrinogen … Continue reading Fibrinogen Plays a Neurodegenerative Role in Alzheimer’s Disease

Lymphatic Vessels Can Improve Cognition Relative to Age

Caleb Sooknanan ‘20 Aging is often associated with increased neurological problems among humans, and more research is needed to understand how lymphatic vessels connecting the brain and the immune system affect conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. Doctor Jonathan Kipnis and researchers from the University of Virginia enhanced the lymphatic vessels of aging mice and significantly improved their abilities to learn and retain memory. The researchers … Continue reading Lymphatic Vessels Can Improve Cognition Relative to Age

Perception of Human Emotion by Horses Found to be Cross-Modal

Anna Tarasova ‘19 Dogs and horses have long been considered companion animals because of their long history of domestication with humans. Both are also heavily social animals, which means that they use emotional cues to learn about their environment and participate in their social group. The relationship between humans and horses stretches back 5,500 years. Within their species, horses have been seen to demonstrate physiological … Continue reading Perception of Human Emotion by Horses Found to be Cross-Modal

Functionally Different Smiles Cause Distinct Physiological Responses in Humans

By Maryna Mullerman ‘20 A smile is often associated with positive feedback and friendly gestures. Jared D. Martin and researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison aimed to reevaluate this nonverbal social tool. They suggested that there are three distinct smiles that could be encountered —  reward, affiliation, and dominance — with each smile playing a different role in human society. Verbal communication activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal … Continue reading Functionally Different Smiles Cause Distinct Physiological Responses in Humans

Figure 1. Caffeine affects heart rate variability in the first five minutes of recovery after physical exercise.

Running on Caffeine

By Maryna Mullerman ’20 Caffeine is a stimulant often found in coffee, energy drinks, and medicine. Many researchers have analyzed its physiological effects, but caffeine’s impact on post-exercise recovery is not widely understood.  Doctor Luana Almeida Gonzaga and researchers from São Paulo State University in Brazil conducted a study focusing on cardiovascular parameters, such as heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and … Continue reading Running on Caffeine