Title: Exercise was successfully able to restore brain insulin responsiveness in overweight and obese individuals living a sedentary life.

By: Jessica George, Class of 2024  Figure 1: Exercise is a natural and cost effective option to improving health, unlike certain medications. When the brain is resistant to insulin, the body tends to gain weight and distribute fat unfavorably. Resistance to insulin is one of the main characteristics of disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Today, it is unknown whether it is possible … Continue reading Title: Exercise was successfully able to restore brain insulin responsiveness in overweight and obese individuals living a sedentary life.

Novel Form of Noninvasive Neurosurgery Selectively Lesions Faulty Neural Circuitry

Vignesh Subramanian ’24 A number of movement disorders and motor neuron diseases, including focal epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy, and multiple sclerosis, are recognized as medically intractable or capable of becoming so. Intractable conditions lack known etiologies and have no established courses of treatment, with those in the neurological sphere often characterized by resistance to neural activity-suppressing medications (e.g. muscle relaxants, … Continue reading Novel Form of Noninvasive Neurosurgery Selectively Lesions Faulty Neural Circuitry

Case Study Suggests Possible Link Between Hepatitis B Vaccine and Multiple Sclerosis

Jessica George ’24 Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune system disorder in which the myelin sheath surrounding axons degenerates, causing system-wide brain-body disruptions. The cause of MS is unknown, but several triggers have been identified. A case study of a patient who developed MS symptoms a day after being vaccinated with hepatitis B inspired researchers from the Bassett Medical center to explore whether the hepatitis … Continue reading Case Study Suggests Possible Link Between Hepatitis B Vaccine and Multiple Sclerosis

World Trade Center Responders with Cognitive Impairment Found to Have Decreased Cerebellar Cortical Thickness

Jessica George ’24 There is no doubt that the September 11th attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) left devastating effects on the community. WTC-affected individuals, including survivors, first responders, and those involved in the clean up/recovery operation were exposed to a multitude of physical and psychological stressors. Prior neuroimaging studies demonstrate that WTC responders with cognitive impairment experienced connectivity changes in the white matter … Continue reading World Trade Center Responders with Cognitive Impairment Found to Have Decreased Cerebellar Cortical Thickness

Neuronal Firing in Thalamus is Key to Restoring Post-TBI Consciousness

Vignesh Subramanian ’24 Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a form of acquired brain disability caused by an external force exerted against the head. The causative trauma is typically severe enough to result in loss of consciousness and the conditions under which consciousness returns remain unclear. Clinical practice uses complex electroencephalography (EEG) activity to predict its return and level, predicated on the assumption that neuronal firing … Continue reading Neuronal Firing in Thalamus is Key to Restoring Post-TBI Consciousness

Selective Striatal Neuron Degeneration in HD Linked to Autophagy Impairment

Vignesh Subramanian ’24 Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease that causes the progressive breakdown of neurons over time, resulting in the development of involuntary movements (chorea), psychiatric disorders, and cognitive decline. HD is caused by the dominant mutation of the HTT gene encoding huntingtin, a protein whose normal function is unknown but is linked to projection neuron death in the striatum of the … Continue reading Selective Striatal Neuron Degeneration in HD Linked to Autophagy Impairment

Use of Retinoid Therapy May Restore Vision in Blind Adults

Sooraj Shah ’24 Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a family of retinal disorders, which result in severe vision loss from birth. LCA is one of the most common causes of childhood blindness, affecting approximately 2-3 infants for every 100,000 births. Currently, no direct cure for LCA exists, but recent developments in gene replacement therapy have shown promise in partially restoring retinal light-sensing ability with variability … Continue reading Use of Retinoid Therapy May Restore Vision in Blind Adults

Accidental EEG Recording of Dying Patient Offers Tentative Glimpse into Our Final Moments

Jessica George ’24 In our relentless pursuit for knowledge, perhaps one of the most perplexing questions to humankind is what happens when we die. Several individuals who have undergone near-death experiences (NDE) describe their “life flashing before their eyes.” There is also the classical theory of a hypoactive brain during the end stages of life, where the brain ceases all electrical activity. Contrary to this … Continue reading Accidental EEG Recording of Dying Patient Offers Tentative Glimpse into Our Final Moments

Working Memory Capacity Is Directly Linked To Processing and Storage

Melanie Karniewich ’25 Memory plays an important role in our brain function, allowing us to register events and remember them for later use. Certain key factors play a strong role in the quality of our working memory capacity, such as processing and storage, problem-solving, and conscious control of what we find fit to remember. Dr. Lauren Richmond, an assistant professor at Stony Brook University, and … Continue reading Working Memory Capacity Is Directly Linked To Processing and Storage

Lack of CLOCK Regulator Protein May Predict Focal Seizure Susceptibility

By Vignesh Subramanian ’24 Focal seizure activity originates at particular foci﹣those being lobes, regions or hemispheres – of abnormal brain tissue and may emanate outward.  Epilepsy is a chronic central nervous system disorder characterized by uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain that triggers recurrent, spontaneous seizures. The majority of new epilepsy cases involve focal epilepsy, in which seizure activity originates in a particular “focus” or … Continue reading Lack of CLOCK Regulator Protein May Predict Focal Seizure Susceptibility

Type 2 Diabetes Accelerates Brain Aging-Related Neurocognitive Decline

Vignesh Subramanian ’24 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by dysfunctions relating to hyperglycemia, the state of high glucose levels in the bloodstream. Such excessive blood sugar is typically the combinatory result of inadequate secretion of insulin (a hormone that directs cells and the liver to take up glucose for energy and long-term storage, respectively), uncontrolled secretion of glucagon (an … Continue reading Type 2 Diabetes Accelerates Brain Aging-Related Neurocognitive Decline

Loss of NG2 Glia Implicated in Emergence of Depression Symptoms

Vignesh Subramanian ’24 Glia are non-neuronal cells that host and provide a number of homeostatic ancillary functions in both the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems. Though only recently discovered and characterized, glial cells vastly outnumber neurons and provide them with structural support and insular protection, driving their myelination (the process of forming coverings known as myelin sheaths that coat neurons’ signaling axons), facilitating … Continue reading Loss of NG2 Glia Implicated in Emergence of Depression Symptoms