The Relationship Between the Brain’s Energy and Weight Gain in Children

Mariam Malik ‘22 Around 32% of adolescents and children are overweight or obese in the U.S., according to the National Institutes of Health, and childhood obesity has become a major problem in the U.S. Co-authors Christopher Kuwaza of Northwestern University and Clancy Blair of New York University School of Medicine hypothesized that there is an inverse relationship between brain development and fat disposition in terms … Continue reading The Relationship Between the Brain’s Energy and Weight Gain in Children

Effects of Dopamine in Value-Based Learning

Allan Mai ‘20 Dopamine is a neurotransmitter with implicated functions involving value-based learning. Researchers have discovered that dopamine signals reward prediction and incentive motivation when the brain is actively utilizing its decision making and value-based learning functions. Additionally, dopamine receptors in the brain can be divided into two groups, D1 and D2, which have opposite functions in terms of reward related and aversion related behaviors. … Continue reading Effects of Dopamine in Value-Based Learning

Effects of GVS Signals on Cognitive Functions

Allan Mai ‘20 The hippocampus and striatal circuits play essential roles in spatial navigation. This task is completed by integrating information from the environment as well as intrinsic input from the vestibular system which is responsible for balance. Scientists are trying to modify the interaction of the hippocampus and striatal circuits by using the galvanic vestibular system (GVS), and researchers from the German Center for … Continue reading Effects of GVS Signals on Cognitive Functions

Weight Loss Linked to Self-Control Brain Regions

By Annamaria Cavaleri ‘22 According to a recent study published in Cell Metabolism, weight loss success is linked to an active self-control region in the human brain. The hormones leptin and ghrelin play a role in signaling hunger cues during weight-loss. When weight is lost, the levels of these hormones in the body changes. Alain Dagher and her team at the Montreal Neurological Institute and … Continue reading Weight Loss Linked to Self-Control Brain Regions

Stress Linked to Memory Impairment and Reduced Brain Size

By Annamaria Cavaleri ‘22 Given the increased amount of stress present in modern life, cognitive aging is an issue that is attracting more attention. Recent studies conducted in the neurology department of UT Health San Antonio suggest that stress is directly related to memory impairment and reduced brain size in your middle age. Cortisol is a hormone linked to stress and this study demonstrated that … Continue reading Stress Linked to Memory Impairment and Reduced Brain Size

Attention Network May Play Role in Vision Restoration Resulting from Brain Damage

By Annamaria Cavaleri ‘22 Hemianopia is defined as a decreased vision or blindness in half of the visual field because of trauma or stroke. Although research on in this field is limited, neuroimaging evidence suggests that a person’s attention may play a role in restoring vision. Recent studies have shown that vision training has the ability to partially restore vision by improving the deficiency of … Continue reading Attention Network May Play Role in Vision Restoration Resulting from Brain Damage

Neurogenesis and its Implications on Brain Development

By Snigdha Kanadibhotla ‘21 Conventionally, humans were thought to be born with a fixed number of nerve cells or neurons that steadily deteriorated over their lifetime; as a result, degenerative brain diseases were thought to be untreatable. However, studies involving animal models have challenged this idea by demonstrating that during adulthood, neurogenesis or the creation of new neurons can occur in the hippocampus which isa … Continue reading Neurogenesis and its Implications on Brain Development

Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI

By Nujbat Meraji In the past year, it was estimated that 5.2 million Americans were suffering from the Alzheimer’s disease, a disease that causes memory, thinking and behavioral issues and currently has no cure. A research team at Stony Brook University, led by Helene Benveniste, M.D., Ph.D., Professor in the Departments of Anesthesiology and Radiology, are using imaging technique to study how brain waste can … Continue reading Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI

Understanding the Fear Circuits in The Brain

By: Ashwin Kelkar Fear and fear memory have long been a subject of study by both scientists and philosophers. Our understanding of fear and how it may exert control to the point of phobia is imperative to eventually finding the underlying cause of fear itself. Researchers around the world have tapped into the brain to try to elucidate this enigma. In a groundbreaking study conducted … Continue reading Understanding the Fear Circuits in The Brain