Going to College Can Delay Alzheimer’s Disease Onset

Ayesha Azeem ‘23 Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible brain disorder that progresses to destroy memory and thinking skills until one fails to complete basic tasks. Alzheimer’s most commonly begins to affect people in their mid-60s, and is currently the third leading cause of death for the elderly in the United States (NIH). A recent study conducted by Stony Brook University researchers revealed that attending college … Continue reading Going to College Can Delay Alzheimer’s Disease Onset

Fears and How Priming Can Help Overcome Them

Yukta Kulkarni ’22 Some of the most important topics covered by neuroscience research encompass memory retention. This type of research helps explain how much information brains can retain and how easily it is learned. However, does prior learning affect the ability to learn in the future? To answer this, Cole et al. blocked protein-kinase A (PKA) and extracellular signal-related mitogen-activated protein-kinase (ERK/MAPK) within the basolateral … Continue reading Fears and How Priming Can Help Overcome Them

Effects of distractive and target stimuli on auditory neurons within mice brains

Joyce Chen ’23 Biological organisms are naturally stimulated by their environment. To avoid being overstimulated, animals use selective attention. By simply focusing on one thing, humans and other animals can essentially drown out other irrelevant stimuli. This phenomenon requires sensory regulation, especially auditory. To gain insight on how auditory neurons react to both irrelevant and target stimuli, Stony Brook University researcher Pan-tong Yao and his … Continue reading Effects of distractive and target stimuli on auditory neurons within mice brains

Expectation-induced modulation of metastable activity underlies faster coding of sensory stimuli

Sabah Bari ’24 Expectation is what drives the human brain to perceive our senses. Perception is connected to sensory processing, and the recognition of the stimuli is what determines how accurately and how fast individuals are able to understand it. In the gustatory cortex, the pre-stimulus activity is the anticipation of a specific taste before even consuming a food. The anticipation is a trigger to … Continue reading Expectation-induced modulation of metastable activity underlies faster coding of sensory stimuli

Diagnosis and management of Guillain–Barré syndrome in ten steps

Sabah Bari ’24 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by an overactive immune system that causes damage to peripheral nerves, leading to loss of sensorimotor function starting at the extremities and spreading to the torso. Some symptoms of GBS are potentially fatal, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrhythmias, blood pressure instability, which are all directly involved with the autonomic nervous system. The … Continue reading Diagnosis and management of Guillain–Barré syndrome in ten steps

Social Interactions Possibly Linked to Cerebellum

By Mariam Malik ‘22 The cerebellum, a five-centimeter wide part of the hindbrain, was initially thought of as having one major function: coordinating motor functions and balance. But new research on mice from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City shows that the remarkable cerebellar cortex may play a part in our social interactions as well. Kamran Khodakhah and colleagues were aware … Continue reading Social Interactions Possibly Linked to Cerebellum

Fibrinogen Plays a Neurodegenerative Role in Alzheimer’s Disease

By Natalie Lo ‘21 Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is characterized by the formation of β-amyloid plaques Aβ, microglial activation, and inflammation in the brain. Microglia are immune cells found in the central nervous system (CNS). In AD, the blood-brain barrier is disrupted, which leads to bleeding, vascular damage, and an increase in blood proteins. Currently, there is an unknown relationship between vascular dysfunction, proteins like fibrinogen … Continue reading Fibrinogen Plays a Neurodegenerative Role in Alzheimer’s Disease

Coenzyme Q10 Has Protective Effects in Alzheimer’s Disease

By Natalie Lo ‘21 Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia with links to memory impairment and behavioral issues in those diagnosed. Although the cause of AD is unknown, molecular characteristics of the disease include the growth of β-amyloid oligomers, which form plaques that result in brain atrophy. Previous studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of … Continue reading Coenzyme Q10 Has Protective Effects in Alzheimer’s Disease

Lymphatic Vessels Can Improve Cognition Relative to Age

Caleb Sooknanan ‘20 Aging is often associated with increased neurological problems among humans, and more research is needed to understand how lymphatic vessels connecting the brain and the immune system affect conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. Doctor Jonathan Kipnis and researchers from the University of Virginia enhanced the lymphatic vessels of aging mice and significantly improved their abilities to learn and retain memory. The researchers … Continue reading Lymphatic Vessels Can Improve Cognition Relative to Age

Traveling Waves in the Cortex May Hold the Key to Understanding Human Cognition

Rachel Kogan ’19 “Neurons that fire together, wire together.” This age old phrase serves as the foundation for neuroscience, commenting not only on neuron synchronicity, but also proposing a biological scaffold for behavior and thought. The greater the number of oscillating electrical impulses, or brain waves, fired by a group of neurons, the stronger the signal and potential for action. In the past few years, … Continue reading Traveling Waves in the Cortex May Hold the Key to Understanding Human Cognition

Scientists Are Growing Human Brains in Mice

By Marcia-Ruth Ndege ‘21 Human pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into nearly any cell in the human body. Recently, geneticist Abed AlFatah Mansour and other scientists from the Salk Institute for Biological Studies used them to build human brains in mice. The differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells gave rise to small brain-like structures known as brain organoids about the size of a lentil. Researchers … Continue reading Scientists Are Growing Human Brains in Mice

Visualizing the Impacts of Age and Disease on the Brain

By Fatin Chowdhury ‘19 Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a common neurodegenerative disorder, has previously been found to increase atrophy rate of the hippocampus, an area of the brain associated with learning and memory. In relation to this issue, Dr. Daniel H. Adler and researchers from the University of Pennsylvania recently examined specific structural details of the human hippocampus as relevant to advanced age and AD. Thirty-one … Continue reading Visualizing the Impacts of Age and Disease on the Brain